Research behind SPEP

Howell Lipsey Research Based Guidelines

This article summarizes the research that went into developing the SPEP score. Programs with a SPEP score of 50 or higher reduced recidivism rates.

Howell, J.C., & Lipsey, M. W. (2012) Research-based guidelines for juvenile justice programs. Justice Research and Policy, (14) 1, p.1-18.


Lipsey Effective Interventions

This article summarizes the Lipsey meta-analysis of over 500 studies on juvenile justice programs and their impact on recidivism. Therapeutic programs were more effective than control-oriented programs. Four characteristics of effective programs were identified: service type, quality of service, amount of service, risk level of youth served.

Lipsey, M. W. (2009). The primary factors that characterize effective interventions with juvenile offenders: A meta-analytic overview. Victims and Offenders (4), 124-147.


YLS Validity Study

This article describes the development and validation of the Youth Level of Service (YLS), which is used in PA to determine youth risk scores.

Schmidt, F., Hoge, R. D., & Gomes, L. (2005). Reliability and validity analyses of the Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory. Criminal Justice and Behavior (32), 329-344.

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