Research behind SPEP
This article summarizes the research that went into developing the SPEP score. Programs with a SPEP score of 50 or higher reduced recidivism rates.
Howell, J.C., & Lipsey, M. W. (2012) Research-based guidelines for juvenile justice programs. Justice Research and Policy, (14) 1, p.1-18.
This article summarizes the Lipsey meta-analysis of over 500 studies on juvenile justice programs and their impact on recidivism. Therapeutic programs were more effective than control-oriented programs. Four characteristics of effective programs were identified: service type, quality of service, amount of service, risk level of youth served.
Lipsey, M. W. (2009). The primary factors that characterize effective interventions with juvenile offenders: A meta-analytic overview. Victims and Offenders (4), 124-147.
This article describes the development and validation of the Youth Level of Service (YLS), which is used in PA to determine youth risk scores.
Schmidt, F., Hoge, R. D., & Gomes, L. (2005). Reliability and validity analyses of the Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory. Criminal Justice and Behavior (32), 329-344.